|Xiaoli Li,Beidong Liu,Huiqiang Lou et al.Mck1 defines a key S-phase checkpoint effector in response to various degrees of replication threats.PLOS Genetics.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1008136|
Mck1 defines a key S-phase checkpoint effector in response to various degrees of replication threats.
Xiaoli Li,Xuejiao Jin,Sushma Sharma,Xiaojing Liu,Jiaxin Zhang,Yanling Niu,Jiani Li, Zhen LiID, Jingjing Zhang,Qinhong Cao,Wenya Hou,Li-Lin DuID,Beidong Liu,Huiqiang Lou.
The S-phase checkpoint plays an essential role in regulation of the ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) activity to maintain the dNTP pools. How eukaryotic cells espond appropriately to different levels of replication threats remains elusive. Here, we have identified that a conserved GSK-3 kinase Mck1 cooperates with Dun1 in regulating this process. Deleting MCK1 sensitizes dun1Δ to hydroxyurea (HU) reminiscent of mec1Δ or rad53Δ. While Mck1 is downstream of Rad53, it does not participate in the post-translational regulation of RNR as Dun1 does. Mck1 phosphorylates and releases the Crt1 repressor from the promoters of DNA damage-inducible genes as RNR2-4 and HUG1. Hug1, an Rnr2 inhibitor normally silenced, is induced as a counterweight to excessive RNR. When cells suffer a more severe threat, Mck1 inhibits HUG1 transcription. Consistently, only a combined deletion of HUG1 and CRT1, confers a dramatic boost of dNTP levels and the survival of mck1Δdun1Δ or mec1Δ cells assaulted by a lethal dose of HU. These findings reveal the division-of-labor between Mck1 and Dun1 at the S-phase checkpoint pathway to fine-tune dNTP homeostasis.